Disorders of Speech and Language


  • Language Disorders: A disorder that affects one's ability to express thoughts through langauge, and the ability to understand or comprehend the language of others.

  • Articulation Disorders: A disorder in which one has difficulty producing sounds.


Guide for accurate sound production:

Sound Tongue/lip position

S, Z teeth together and tongue behind teeth sand, circle, saw, whistle, seesaw, principal, mouse, house, bus

L tip of tongue behind front teeth lion, lamb, lemon, marshmallow, balloon, halloween, ball, drill, doll

TH tongue sticking out between both rows of teeth thank you, Thursday, thorn, mother, toothbrush, panther, teeth, math, wreath

R (initial position of words) i.e, "rabbit" This is the "smile sound". Smiling prevents lip rounding. Make a mountain with your tongue (raise the mid portion of your tongue) run, rabbit, recess, rope, read, rat, rocket, rattlesnake, rip

R (medial and final positions of words) i.e., bird" and "car" "make a mountain with your tongue"
(raise the mid portion of your tongue) bark, barn, horn, learn, bird, door, floor, sailor, car, deer, fire

K, G raise the back portion of your tongue cat, colts!, camera, kangaroo, kick, cow, go, golf, goose, bag, giggle

P, B, M Lips together (no teeth showing) purple, pop, apple, bubble, cab, above, mom, make, Monday, hammer, him, memory

  • Pragmatics: Difficulty using language appropriately socially.

  • Fluency: Difficulty producing smooth easy speech that is not interrupted by interjections, pauses, blocks, and repetitions.

  • Voice: Difficulty producing voice that is clear and intelligible. This voice may include voice breaks, harshness, hoarseness, breathiness, inappropriate pitch, and inappropriate loudness.